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Scott, you are certainly looking at UBI from every angle. I loved you 'engineering' take about the need to create a 'failsafe' system that is 'proportionally' controlled. If we treat UBI as income for Welfare and Tax, as the UBI is raised it will automatically reduce welfare benefits, while those with higher incomes will pay more tax. Taking this approach averts the concern that replacing welfare with UBI could make some people worse off. It means we can introduce it without having to change anything else at the start. My preference as you may know is to target a long term change to the tax system, so at a point say 20 years hence, all taxes are replaced by a flat % tax based on your place of residence. In this case, a separate % would apply to all people in the same local government area, and a different rate for all the people in the same state and a common rate for the federal government. Then each legislature could set their own rate to meet their costs. The taxes would apply to every transaction, including the purchase of assets. All businesses would get a rebate of tax upon the sale of their goods and services, so only the end purchaser paid tax. Also, individuals would get a rebate on the resale of assets equal to the less of the tax paid upon the original purchase and the tax rate(s) times the resale proceeds - to avoid double taxation. In this case, there is little incentive for businesses to try to avoid tax as they would not expense any tax they paid, getting it all back as they sell their goods and services out of the tax paid by their customer. As everyone paid the same rates (base on where they live) and as it would be paid on all spending, tax would cease to be a factor in decision-making or in relative wealth. It would simply be the simplest way to keep money circulating through the economy. When combined with a UBI the net effect is the same as progressive tax system with a tax rebate for low income earners.... but much simpler to administer. It would mean everyone gets their incomes tax free. Everyone would have one or more sources of income all paid pre-tax: the UBI plus whatever else they can earn, however and whenever they can earn it. Then everyone would pay tax as they spend. We need to give 20 years to make the change in the tax system to placate vested interests and also to pay those still reliant on the current system when the changeover takes place to compensate them for the loss of their business. As the whole of society benefits by the change, we should not ask those negatively impacted to bear the cost. We can all bear a part of the cost by ensuring those impacted are generously rewarded at the time... this will avoid push-back from vested interests

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